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The Age of ConquestWales 1063-1415$

R. R. Davies

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780198208785

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198208785.001.0001

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(p.511) Index

Source:
The Age of Conquest
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

D. and M. in brackets after an entry refer to the numbered diagram or map respectively in the text on which the person or place entered appears. Many of the titles of a subject index are entered under ‘Wales’ or ‘Welsh’ and their sub–headings.

Aber, Lewis 439 n.
Aberafan (Glamorgan M.3) 500, 167
Aberconwy (Arllechwedd M.8) abbey of 197, 201, 251, 261, 266, 343, 355, 359, 373, 451
abbot of 343, 441;
hall of 355
Treaty of (1277) 335–7, 345
Abercorram, later Laugharne 37
Aberdaron (Llŷn M.8) 76
church of 188, 196
clas of 133
Aberdyfi (Meirionydd) 11
partition of (1216) 277–8, 243
Aberffro (Anglesey M.8) 9, 149–50, 154, 256
church of 105
as principal seat of Gwynedd 217, 253
Abergavenny (M.3) 143, 165, 167, 272, 306, 312, 316, 378, 428
castle of 445
Henry of, bishop of Llandaff (1193–1218) 193
mint at 162
priory of 181
Abergavenny, lordship of (M.10) 35, 41, 84, 171, 277, 339, 425, 466
English and Welsh in 100–1, 159–60, 275, 291
honour of 47, 94
Abergele (Rhos) 125
Abergwili (Carms.) collegiate church of 376, 440
Abergwyngregyn (Arllechwedd M.8) 119, 254, 355
Aberlleiniog (Anglesey M.3), castle of 31, 90–1
Abermenai (Anglesey) 11
Aberystwyth (Ceredigion M.9) 39, 88, 91, 227
borough of 348, 372, 421, 433
burgesses of 385
castle at 226, 241, 295, 333, 338–9, 348, 383, 444–7, 451, 454, 457
Abingdon, abbey of 169
Abingdon, Richard, chamberlain of north Wales (1284–6) 366
Adam, bishop of St Asaph (1175–81) 193
Alan (Glamorgan M.3, M.5) 91
land reclamation in 153
local Welsh ruler of 96, 222, 282–3, 424
Alexanderstone (Brecon) 90
Amlwch (Anglesey) 148
Anglesey, Môn (M.2) 9–11, 31, 34–5, 51, 87, 140, 143, 334, 349, 351–2, 425, 434, 447
agricultural wealth of 238
archdeaconry of 416, 451
community of nobles of 68, 117
commutation of renders in 163
county of 365
mills in 155
position after 1277: 336, 342
settlement in 147–8, 129–30
sheriff of 380, 383, 386, 409
Anhunoiog (Ceredigion), commote of 337 n.
Anian, bishop of Bangor (1267–1305) 318, 326, 342–3, 373, 395
Anian II, bishop of St Asaph (1268–93) 194, 202, 374–5
his quarrel with Llywelyn ap Gruffudd 192, 325–6
Anian Sais, bishop of Bangor (1309–28) 375
Annales Cambrie 317
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury (1093–1109) 179, 189
Arberth see Narberth
Archenfield, Ergyng (M.1) 6, 26, 41, 174, 183
customs of 65, 124, 131
food renders in 64
free Welshmen of 118
Ardudwy, cantref of (M.2) 8, 21, 117, 130
commutation in 163
Arfon cantref of (M.2) 20
commutation of renders in 163; see also Caernarfon
Arllechwedd cantref of (M.2) 21
dean of 343
Armes Prydain 80
Arthur 79, 106, 122, 355
tales in Welsh about 105, 106
Arundel, earls of see Fitzalan
Arwystli, cantref of (M.7) 13, 30, 43, 50, 57, 62, 68, 140, 231, 238, 261
annexation of 49, 229–31
dispute over (1278–82) 344–7
dynasty of 44, 59, 72, 75, 217, 231
ecclesiastical status of 183
men of 129
Athée, Gerard d’ 296
Athelstan, king of England (925–39) 3
Atiscross, hundred of (M.1) 4, 31
Audley, family of 235
Hagh 403
James 28
Aythan, Thomas 429
Bache, Alexander, bishop of St Asaph (1390–4) 439
Bailleul, Reynold of 30
(p.512) Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury (1185–90) 17, 191,
Ballon, family of 82, 84
Hamelin de 35, 41, 166
Wynebald de 35
Bangor (Arforn M.3) 25, 165, 295, 343
castle of 31, 90
Dominican friary of 201
Bangor, bishop of 189, 255, 425; see also individual bishops
Bangor, archdeaconry of 177, 441
bishopric of 31, 48, 173, 325
boundaries of 183
cathedral of 184, 195, 440, 456
cathedral organization of 185
diocesan organisation of 185
parish organisation in 186
temporalities of 180
Bangor Is–coed (Maelor Saesneg) 31
Bardsey, Ynys Enlli (Arfon M.4) 184, 206
convent of 133, 179, 451
Barry (Glamorgan) 427
Basaleg (Gwynllŵg M.4), clas of 195
priory of 181
Basingwerk (Tegeingl M.4) 3, 31, 46, 52
abbey of 46, 153, 196
capture of (1166) 49, 53
Baskerville, Ralph 95
Bauzan, Stephen 310
Beauchamp, family of 395, 400
Thomas, earl of Warwick (d. 1401) 442
William, earl of Warwick (d. 1298) 383
Beaumaris (Anglesey M.9) 141, 438
borough of 167, 372–3, 421, 434
burgess of 168
castle of 359–60, 348–5, 444
font at 11
Beaumont: Henry de, earl of Warwick (d. 1119) 41
William de, earl of Warwick (d. 1184) 271
Beddgelert (Arfon M.4), religious community of 179, 188, 196, 451
Bek, Thomas, bishop of St Davids (1280–93) 340, 374–6
Belmeis, Richaid of 40, 41
Beneger, Ralph 188
Berddig the bard 64, 69
Bere (Meirionydd M.8): borough of 372, 427
castle of 251, 256, 354, 357
Berkerolles, family of 196, 422
Bernard, bishop of St Davids (1115–48) 15, 41, 174, 179–80, 192, 196
bid for metropolitan status 190–1
role as bishop of St Davids 182–5
Bernard of Neufmarché (d. c. 1125) 84, 86, 87, 95
Mabel, son of 82
Sibyl, daughter of 41
Bertram, Master 358
Berwyn mountains 53, 236, 238
Bigod, family of 280, 395
Bishop's Castle (M.10) 395
Bistre, Bishopstree (Tegeingl) 26, 65, 149, 154
Blaenllyfni (M.10): lordship of 306, 466
Welshmen of 312
Bieddyn ap Cydifor 101
Bleddyn (d. 1075) ap Cynfyn (D.1) 12, 24, 62, 63, 65, 71, 75, 122
sons of 73
Bloet, family of 85
Bohun, family of 280, 301, 395
interest in sheep-farming 170
relations with Welshmen 158, 284, 409–10
Bohun (D.6): Humphrey (d. 1298), earl of Hereford 322, 333, 378, 383, 397
Humphrey (d. 1322), earl of Hereford 394, 397, 404
Humphrey (d. 1361), earl of Hereford 397
Bolde: Bartholomew 429
family of (Conway) 413
Boilers, Baldwin de 40
Bonvilston (Glamorgan) 147
Book of the Anchorite (Llyfr Ancr) 209
Braose, family of (D.6) 37, 85, 95, 241, 248, 276–7, 279–80
estates of 279, 289, 296, 306
policies in Wales 101, 170, 277, 282
Braose: John (d. 1232) 248
Philip (d. c. 1150) 51
Reginald (d. 1228) 242, 248
William (d. ?1175) 277
William (d. 1210) 101, 229, 275
William (d. 1211) 222, 224, 286, 291–2
William (d. 1230) 247–8, 250, 257, 277, 297
Braose, William, bishop of Llandaff (1266–87) 376
Breauté, Fawkes de 296
Brecon, Aberhonddu (M.3) 29, 242, 257, 272–3, 296, 383
archdeaconry of 178
borough of 90, 97, 101, 165–8, 413, 433, 458–9
castle of 90–1, 95, 97, 247, 266, 360, 444
church of 187, 413
Dominican house at 201
priory of 181, 187, 413–4
roads around 144
shrine of St Elyned near 206
Brecon, Brycheiniog, lordship of (M.10) 41, 47, 84, 94, 219, 247, 265, 277, 283, 285, 315, 321–2, 333, 397, 400, 422, 432, 439, 467
alien settlement in 99
assarting in 153
cattle and sheep rearing in 97, 400
cereal cultivation in 140, 142
forests in 141–2, 155, 401
judicial revenue in 402
lords of 142 (see also Bohun, Gloucester, Henry IV)
mills in 155
relationship of community and lord in 410, 432
revolt of (1294–5) 382–3
sheriff of 410
subinfeudation in 95
Welsh communities of 136, 153, 244, 301, 312, 453
Welsh–English relationship in 100–1, 159–60
yield of 402–3
Brecon Beacons 9, 140
Breous, John de 37
(p.513) Breteuil, customs of 97, 166–7
Roger of 29, 84
Brian, family of 84–5, 395
Guy 257, 400
Bridgnorth (Salop) 313
Bristol 11, 26, 46, 169, 355
Bromfield and Yale (M.10) 363, 369, 384, 399–400, 404, 406, 442, 467
alien settlement in 370–1
lord of 136
survey of (1391–3) 113, 258, 400
tenants of 408; see also Iâl; Maelor Gymraeg
Bronllys (Brecon M.3) 95, 148, 272
castle of 281
field patterns in 156
manor of 160
Broughton, Ralph 366
Bruce: Edward 387, 434
Robert 387, 434
Brut y Tywysogyon (Chronicle of the Princes) 201, 435
Brycheiniog (M.2) 8, 13, 34, 59, 87
native dynasty of 222; see also Brecon, lordship of
Bryn Amlwg (Clun), castle of 51, 322
Bryn Derwin, battle of (1255) 309
Bryn Glas, battle of (1402) 453
Builth, Buellt (M.1, M.10) 9, 37, 219, 247–8, 296, 311, 315, 353
castle of 247, 256, 311–12, 333, 338
constable of 265
free Welsh community of 130
lordship of 34, 51, 96, 277, 208, 302–3, 310–11., 337, 357, 394, 467
Bures, Robert, bailiff of Maelor Saesneg 380
Burgh, Hubert de (d. 1243) 298–9, 405
Burley, Sir Richard 398
Buttington (Powys M.1) 3
Cadifor (d. 1163) ap Daniel 178
Cadwaladr (d. 1172) ap Graffudd ap Cynan (D.5) 48, 51, 53, 72, 73
Cadwallon (d. 1132) ap Graffudd (D.5) 44
Cadwallon ap Madog 291
Cadwgan, bishop of Bangor 1215–36
treatise by 194, 208
Cadwgan (d. 1111) ap Bleddyn (D.1) 34, 36, 62, 63, 67, 71, 73, 87, 102, 122
wife of 102
Caeo, commote of (Cantref Mawr) 141
Caerdegog (Anglesey) 149
Caereinion, commote of (M.2) 230
Caerffili, Caerphilly (Glamorgan): borough of 427
castle of 266, 275, 281–2, 322, 338
Caergwrie (Hope M.8), castle of 338
Caergybi, Holyhead (Anglesey M.4) 387
church of 177, 195
Caerleon (Gwent M.3) 106, 248, 273, 444
abbey of see Llantarnam
castle of 89, 91
Caerleon, lordship of (M. 10) 7, 18, 29, 35, 275, 282, 322, 399, 442, 467
English settlement in 159–60
native dynasty of 72, 96, 216–17, 263, 275, 279, 282, 291, 382
Caernarfon (Arfon M.3) 31, 165, 254, 355, 364, 445, 452
borough of 371–3, 434
castle of 90, 357–60, 383–5, 412, 443
Record of (1352) 113, 258, 400
Caernarfonshire (M.9) 365, 431, 434
sheriff of 386, 409
Caerwedros (Ceredigion), commote of 132
Caerwent (Gwent) 161
church dedication of 182
Cafflogion, commote of (Llŷn): arable farming in 154
mixed agriculture in 156
Caldicot (Gwent) 442
mortality from plague in 425–6, 428
open fields in 155
Camville, family of 281, 395
Canterbury 146
Canterbury, archbishopric of: attitude towards Wales 179
submission of Welsh bishops to 180, 188–91, 325
Cantilupe, family of 280
William 306
cantref 12, 20–1
Cantref Bychan (M.2) 41, 46, 50, 52, 85, 218, 363, 468
Cantref Gwarthaf (M.2) 37
Cantref Mawr (Ystrad Tywi M.2) 37, 43, 45, 50, 52, 141, 217–18, 361, 380–1
Cantref Selyf (Brecon), Welshmen of 160
Caradog, hermit of Rhos 176, 181, 184
Caradog (d. 1081) ap Graffudd ap Rhydderch (D.2) 24, 32–3, 59, 73
Cardiff (Glamorgan M.3) 161, 185, 273, 275, 296
borough of 90, 165, 167, 170, 427, 444–5
castle of 90, 93, 444
charter of 413
church of St Mary 188, 456
county court of 95, 282–3, 377
Dominican and Franciscan friaries at 201–2
mint at 47, 162
Cardiff, family of 86
Cardigan, Aberteifi (Ceredigion M.5) 46, 53, 86, 204, 222, 248, 277, 279, 296, 298–9, 301–3 364
borough of 164, 304
captured Welsh (1165) 53, 218
castle of 34, 39, 45, 67, 88, 104, 221 242, 244, 254, 304, 339
court of 340
‘eisteddfod’ of (1176) 17, 221
importance of in English strategy 320–1, 339
priory of 221
resumed into royal control (1279) 339
secured by English (1199) 218, 226, 293
Cardiganshire (M.10) 132, 339, 364–5, 410
sheriff of 451
Carew (Pembroke M.3): castle of 37, 86, 412
Richard of, bishop of St Davids (1256–80) 192
Carew Newton (Pembroke) 147
Carmarthen, Caerfyrddin (M.5) 37, 40, 41, 46, 51–2, 54, 161, 224, 277, 279, 297–9, 302–3, 333, 355, 264–5, 383, 446
borough of 37, 165, 167, 170, 441
castle of 45, 50, 67, 90–1, 242, 244, 281, 304
church of 188
church dedication of 182
(p.514) court of 305, 340
Franciscan friary at 201
honour of 37, 306–7, 320
its importance as a royal base 219, 227, 289, 299, 320–1, 339
mint at 162
priory of 37, 101, 196
Carmarthenshire (M.10) 339, 364–5, 381, 432
Carndochan (Penliyn ML8), castle of 251
Carn Padren (Lrŷn M.8) 255
Carnwyllion, commote of (Cydweli) 244, 272
parish of St Elli in 187
reclamation of land in 153
Carreg Cenncn (Isceonen), castle of 337, 339, 348
Carreghwfa (M.7), castle of 229, 274, 289
Cascob (Maelienydd) 6
Casteli Gwallter (Ceredigion M.3) 91
Castell Hywel (Ceredigion) 67
CasteUnewydd Emlyn, Newcastle Emlyn (Emlyn M.5) 144, 319
castle of 255, 453
Caus (M.3, M.10) 231, 285, 321
borough of 167
castle of 30, 45, 91, 274, 281, 289
lordship of 274, 276, 333, 468
Cedewain, commote of (M.7) 30, 231, 233, 279, 312, 315, 319–26, 323, 333, 344–5
dynasty of 216–7, 231, 241 244, 231
granted to Roger Mortimer (1279) 337, 363
significance in Welsh politics 231
Cedifor ap Gollwyn 70
Cedifor Wyddel 11
Cefn Graeanog (Arfon), excavations at 151, 154
Cefnllys (Maelienydd M.5): borough of 167, 427
castle of 273, 281, 312, 322–3
Cefn y Fan (Eiionydd) 151, 414
Ceidio (Dyffryn Clwyd) 429
Ceinmeirch, commote of 371
Cemais, cantref and lordship of (M.2) 39, 41, 46, 84, 101, 219, 222, 272, 310, 320, 468
Cemlyn (Anglesey) 149
Cenarth Bychan (Emlyn) 86
Ceredigion (M.5) 8, 13, 20–1, 25, 30, 32, 35, 43, 52, 59–62, 84, 118, 218, 229, 277, 310, 319–20, 333, 347–8, 361
annexed by Deheubarth 50, 219
annexed by Gwyncdd 48, 241
archdeaconry of 177
bond tenure in 121
castles in 67, 88–9, 91
English and Fleming settlements in 39, 98, 99, 159
Norman conquest of (1110) 35, 39, 41, 87, 88–9
recovered by Welsh (1135–6) 45, 48, 68, 93
royal control of (after 1277) 337, 363
Ceri, commote of (M.7) 13, 30, 30, 183, 333, 244, 279, 298, 312, 315, 323, 344
dynasty of 273, 312
granted to Roger Mortimer (1279) 337, 363
men of 127
Charlton, family of 394
Edward 454
Chaworth, family of 281
Patrick (d. 1283) 333
Chepstow (M.3) 34, 272
borough of 165–6
burgesses of 408
castle of 29, 89, 277, 281, 360
priory of 181
walls of 413
Chepstow, Strigoil, lordship of 84, 277, 289, 357, 442, 368
English settlement in 159–60
forest of 141
Welsh leaders in 96
Cheshire 4, 31
Chester 11, 16, 28, 31, 46, 161, 168–9, 301–2, 327, 333–4, 349–51, 383
abbey of St Werbugh at 31
county of 28, 299, 303–4, 314
earldom of 41, 250, 271–2, 280
earls of 46, 273–4, 280; (see also individual entries)
justice of 340, 344, 364
mint at 161–2
principality of 407
Chester
Hugh of Avranches, earl of (d. 1101) 28, 30–1, 35, 82–3, 87, 88, 89
Hugh ‘of Cyfeiiog’, earl of (d. 1181) 46–7, 49, 10
Ranulf ‘de Blundevilte’, earl of (d. 1232) 241, 248, 286
Ranulf ‘de Gemon’, earl of (d. 1153) 46–7, 49, 196
Chirbury 30
ridge-and-furrow husbandry in 155
Chirk (Nanheudwy M.9), castle of 231, 289, 360, 41
Chirkland (M.10) 363, 399, 405, 409, 428, 432, 442, 468
charters of liberties of 411
Extent of (1391–3) 113, 258, 400
financial yield of 402–3, 426, 439
Cigogné, Engelard de 296
Cilfai, Kilvey (Gower) 169
Cilgerran (Emlyn M.5): castle of 53, 86, 244, 255–6, 277, 281
church dedication of 182
lordship of 219, 272, 277, 339
Clare, earls of Gloucester (D.6): Gilbert (d. 1230) 248, 281, 297
Gilbert, ‘the Eed’ (d. 1295) 281, 286–7, 313–4, 322, 333, 350, 377–8, 383–5, 388
Gilbert (d. 1314) 388
lichard (d. 1262) 281, 283, 286, 316
Clare (D.6), family of, 84, 196, 218, 280–11, 301, 306, 395, 402
Gilbert fitz Gilbert, earl of Pembroke (d. 1148) 46, 51
Gilbert fitz Richard (d. 1114–17) 39, 41, 84, 87–8
Richard itz Gilbert (d. 1136) 45, 46, 143
Richard Itz Gilbert, earl of Pembroke or Strigoil (d. 1176) 271, 275, 277
Roger, earl of Hertford (d. 1173) 52
Walter fitz Richard (d. 1138) 41, 84
Cleddau, river 37
Cledemutha, burh of 25, 161
Clement, Geoffrey, deputy-justiciar of west Wales (1281–98), 380, 382–3
Clifford (M.3) 29, 82, 89, 248
borough of 29
family of 41, 52, 218, 280–1
Roger (d. 1282) 313, 348
(p.515) Walter (d. 1190) 95
Walter (d. 1263) 248
Clun, lordship of (M.10) 131, 142, 270, 283, 321, 339, 405, 419, 422, 442, 469
English settlement in 158
forests of 141, 322
Welshry of 158–9, 419
Clwyd, river (M.1) 4, 8, 25, 31, 46, 98, 140, 143, 236
Clynnog Fawr (Arfon M.4) 197, 434
Coety (Glamorgan) 88, 432
castle of 445, 455
Collier, family of (Harlech) 168, 452
Colwinston (Glamorgan) 91
commote, cwmwd 12–13, 20–1, 264–5, 365
Conway (Caerns, M.9) 383–4, 453
borough of 354, 371–3, 413, 423, 434, 456
castle of 354, 357–60, 443
family of 422; see also Aberconwy: Conwy
Conwy, river 31, 35, 140, 143–4, 236; see also Aberconwy: Conway
Corbet 30
family of 233, 313, 395
Peter (d. 1300) 333
Thomas (d. 1274) 276
Cormeilles, abbey of (Normandy) 29, 180–1
Corwen (Edeirnion) 53
Courtemain, Robert 37, 101
Creuddyn (Ceredigion), commote of 337 n.
Creuddyn (Gwynedd), commote of 363
Crevequer, Sir Robert 371
Cricieth (Eifionydd M.8): borough of 372, 421, 427, 434
castle of 67, 251, 253, 255–6, 357, 383, 399
Crickhowel, Crughywel (Blaenllyfni M.8), Pauncefoot family of 272–3
Crag Mawr, battle of (1136) 45, 89
Cuhelyn Fardd 17
Culhwch and Olwen, tale of 104, 125
Cwmhir (Maelienydd M.4), abbey of 144, 197–8
Cydweli, Kidwelly, commote/lordship of (M.5) 34, 37, 41, 62, 218, 244, 272, 320, 398, 425, 442, 455, 458, 469
alien settlement in 99
charter of liberties of (1356) 411, 433
financial yield of 402–3
mills in 155
population density in 148
sheep–rearing in 97, 156, 159
steward of 451, 457; see also Kidwelly: borough of, castle of
Cyfeiliog, commote of (M.2) 43, 49, 75, 219, 238, 263, 343
Cyfraith Hywel see Welsh law
Cymaron (Maelienydd M.3), castle of 51, 82, 247, 273, 275
Cymer (Meirkmydd M.4): abbey of 197, 200, 251, 343
castle of 67
Abereiddon 253
Cymerau, battle of (1257) 310, 316, 355
Cymru (y), Cymraeg 19
Cymydmaen (Ltŷn), commote of 147
Cynan ap Hywel (D.3) 226
Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr 14, 17, 49, 68, 175–6, 203, 205
Cynllaith, commote of (M.2) 230
Cynyr ap Cadwgan, jurist 134
Cysegrlan Fuchedd (The Consecrated Life) 209
Dafydd ab Edtmwnd 368
Dafydd (d. 1203) ab Owain (Gwynedd D.5) 17, 68, 74, 76, 102, 239, 241, 291
Emma, daughter of Henry II, wife of 239
Dafydd ap Bleddyn, bishop of St Asaph (1314–45) 375
Dafydd (d. 1283) ap Gruffudd (D.5) 145, 259, 268, 306, 308–9, 318, 341, 347, 355
agreement with his brother Llywelyn (1269) 318
children of 301
his death 354
his rôle in the revolt of 1282: 348–53
plots against Llywelyn (1274) 323–4
status according to treaty of Montgomery (1267) 315
territorial to him (1277) 336
Dafydd ap Gwilym 143, 151, 202, 417, 419
Dafydd (d. 1246) ap Llywelyn (D.5) 127, 260
attempts to counter policies of Henry III: 193, 302, 305
collapse of his power 260–1, 300–1, 304–5
death of 302, 309
father arranges succession of 192–3, 245, 249, 298, 300
Isabella Braose, wife of 248–9, 303
leads revolt (1244–5) 302, 309
steward of, see Ednyfed Fychan
title of 305
Dafydd Benfras 317
Dafydd Gam (d. 1415) 447, 452–3
Daniel (d. 1127) ap Sullen 76, 178, 185, 203
David fitz Gerald, bishop of St Davids (1148–76) 178, 191–2
David ‘The Scot’, bishop of Bangor (1120–39) 44, 179
Dean, forest of 54
Dee (Dyfrdwy M.1), river 3–4, 8, 12, 26, 30–1, 46, 140, 231, 238, 274
Defynnog (Brycheiniog), church of 187
Degannwy (Creuddyn M.8) 31, 87, 142, 301, 310, 312, 334, 425
borough of 304
castle of 90, 214, 256, 266, 274, 302, 304, 338
Deheubarth 42–3, 50–1, 217–27
passim client position vis à vis Gwynedd 227, 243–6, 311, 318–20
divisions after death of Lord Rhys 216
dynasty of 73, 141
geographical extent of 217–8
princes of 333, 337, 340–1, 343, 348–9, 353, 361
virtual extinction of the native dynasty 381; see also Welsh principalities; and under individual princes
Denbigh, Dinbych (M.8) 254
borough of 167, 271–3, 385, 413
burgesses of 411
(p.516) Carmelite friary at 201
castle of 351, 358, 360, 383, 385
Denbigh, lordship of (M.10) 130, 363, 394, 397, 404, 419, 433, 442, 469
English settlement in 159, 370–1, 385, 422
escheated lands in 401
free and bond vills in 121–2
impact of plague in 426–7
pattern of settlement in 148, 150
reclamation of land in 153, 159
revolt of 1294–5 in 382–5
sessions in eyre in 402
Survey of (1334) 113, 125, 137, 159, 258, 371, 400
Derllys, commote of 219
Despenser, family of 395, 404
Hugh tie elder (d. 1326) 405–6
Hugh the younger (d. 1326) 387, 405–6, 410–11
widow of 445
Devereux, family of 95
Dewi Sant see St David
Dinas (Blaenlliyfhi), castle of 90
Dinas Brân (Nanheudwy, northern Powys M.7), castle of 230, 235, 255–6, 333, 339
Dinas Powys (Glamorgan) 85
Dinefwr (Cantref Mawr M.5) 10, 141, 218, 255, 319, 337, 339, 363, 380
borough of 372
constable of 381
court of 206, 217, 253, 340
Dingeraint, later Cardigan 39, 88
Dinmael, commote of 230
barons of 361
Dinorben (Rhos) 140, 149
Diserth (Tegeingl) 310, 312
borough of 304
castle of 256, 260, 302, 304, 338
Dolbadarn (Arfon M.8), castle of 67, 251, 253, 255–6
Dolbenmaen (Eifionydd M.8) 64, 67
Dolforwyn (Cedewain M.7), castle of 231, 256, 321, 324, 333
Dolgellau (Merioneth) 445
Dolwyddelan (Nantconwy M.8) 343, 370
castle of 253, 255–7, 353, 358
Domesday Book (1086) 6–7, 29, 31, 64, 96, 118, 120, 124, 140, 149
Don, Henry 445, 447, 451, 457
Doncaster, William of 168
Dore, abbey of 153
locks of 157
Dream of Rhonabwy (Breudwyt Ronabwy) 50, 72, 129, 152
Dryslwyn (Cantref Mawr M.5) 255, 381
borough of 372, 381
Dublin 10, 53, 73
Scandinavian kingdom of 10, 25
Dudestan (Cheshire M.1), hundred of 4
Dudleston 50, 231
Dunoding, cantref of 21
Duosaete, ‘ordinance’ of 25
Durnford, Master Nicholas 359
Dyfed (M.2) 18, 21, 25, 30, 32, 35, 40, 45, 62, 64, 70, 320
Dyffryn Clwyd, cantref of (M.10) 12, 20, 43, 59, 74, 117, 124, 146, 303, 309, 330, 363, 382, 400, 412, 420, 424, 469
ecclesiastical status of 183
English settlement in 159, 370–1
impact of plague in 425, 427–9
men of 401
survey of 400
tension between lord ipd tenants in 410, 434, 441
Dyfi, river (M.1) 143–4, 219, 236
Eccleshall, Richard 398
Eccleston, John 168
Edeirnion, commote of (M.7) 20, 30, 49, 230–1, 238, 295
barons of 361, 370
cereal-growing in 154
noblemen of 69
Pennant in 147, 156
Ednyfed Fychan (d. 1246) 137, 158, 260, 265, 409, 415
sons and family of 263, 269, 325
steward of Llywelyn ab lorwerth 263
wife of 263
Edric the Wild 27, 30
Edward, ‘The Black Prince’ (d. 1376) 394, 399–400, 417, 428
councillors of 142
exploitation of his estates in Wales 402–3, 410–11
his use of Wales as a source of patronage 398
pretensions in Wales 391
Edward the Confessor, king of England (1042–66) 24
Edward I, king of England (1272–1307) 7, 18, 53, 131, 133, 169, 208
attitude to Llywelyn's pretensions 329
campaign of 1376–7: 42, 145, 266, 333–5
celebrates his victory in Wales (1283–4) 355–7
consolidates his position in Wales (1277–82) 339–40
deteriorating relationships with Llywelyn (1274–6) 326–8
general attitude to Welshmen after the Conquest 370, 379, 386–7
his administrative and legal settlement in Wales 340, 357, 363–70
his financial exploitation of Wales 366–7
his jurisdictional claims in Wales and attitude towards Webb law (1277–82) 340–1, 345–6, 367–8
his policies in the March 370–9
his response to the revolt of 1294–5 383–5
his second campaign in Wales (1282–3) 348–54
his territorial arrangements in Wales after 1282: 361–3
imposes peace terms on Llywelyn (1277) 335–7
invested with crown possessions in Wales (1254) 304
personal attention to Wales 338–9, 357–60
progress through his lands (1256) 307, 310
relations with Llywelyn (1277–82) 341–8
rôle in events of 1260s 313–14, 316
significance of his accession in Anglo-Welsh relations 326
Edward II, king of England (1307–1327) 391, 394
cultivates relationship with Welsh 386–7, 397
(p.517) granted royal lands in Wales (1301) 386
his policies in Wales 386–8, 408
rôle of Wales in the politics of his reign 394, 397
Edward III, king of England (1327–1377) 404, 408
Edwin, earl of Mercia 27
Efa ferch Maredudd (D.3) 128, 209
Efelffre, commote of (M.5) 218
Eifionydd, cantref ot(M.2) 13, 20–1, 64, 117, 239
commutation in 163
Einion (d. 1163) ab Anarawd 67
Einion ap Gwalchmai 66, 143 n., 208
Einion ap Maredudd 158
Einion ap Rhys 63
Einion Offeiriad, Grammar of 418
Einion Sais ap Rhys 284, 319
descendants of 400–10
Elfael, cantref and lordship of (M.1, M.10) 21, 34, 37, 51, 244, 313, 315. 321–2, 333, 400, 442, 469
Anglo-Norman advances in 101
bailiff of 265
native Welsh dynasty of 101, 216–I7, 222, 241, 247, 273–4, 312
Elfed (Cantref Gwarthaf), commote of 219
Elidir Sais 14, 239
Eliseg, pillar of 8
Elisse ap Madog (D.4) 229
Ellesmere (Salop) 241, 291, 301, 314, 448
Emlyn, cantref and lordship of (M.10) 39, 46, 86, 218, 226, 277
Ergyng see Tegeingl
Englefield see Archenfield
Eu, William of 29, 84
Evreux, abbey of St Taurin of 181
Ewenni (Glamorgan M.4), priory of 99, 181, 187
Ewias (M.2) 6, 183
Ewloe (Tegeingl M.8), castle of 251, 256, 342
forest of 31, 141
Ewyas Harold (M.3) 46, 89
Ewyas Lacy, lordship of (M.10) 41, 47, 84, 378, 469
Exestan (Cheshire), hundred of (M.1) 4, 31
Fitzalan: John (d. 1240) 276
John (d. 1272) 286, 313
William (d. 1169) 47
William (d. 1213) 276
Fitzalan, earls of Arundel: Edmund (d. 1326) 405–6
Richard (d. 1376) 400, 404–6, 410, 448
Richard (d. 1397) 399, 404, 441–2, 448
Fitzalan, family of 84, 85, 395
as sheep farmers 170, 400
estates in Wales 395, 405–7
financial yield of Marcher estates 402–3
fitz Baderon, family of 280
Gilbert, (d. 1190) 106
William 82
fitz Baldwin: Richard 41
Walter 35
fitz Count, Brian (d. c.1150) 41, 47, 84
fitz Flaad, Alan 40, 82, 84
fitz Gerald, family of 218
William 47; see also Gerald of Wales
fitz Gilbert of Clare see Clare
fitz Hamo, Robert (d. 1107) (D.6) 35, 41, 82, 84, 87, 94, 180, 388
Mabel, daughter of 41
fitz Harold, Robert of Ewyas Harold 46
fitz Henry, Meilir 102
fitz Hugh, Robert 31
fitz John, Payn (d. 1137) 41, 45, 84
Fitzmartin, family of 84
Nicholas (d. 1282) 257
Robert (d. 1159) 41, 181
fitz Osbern, William, earl of Hereford (d. 1071) 27, 87, 89, 97
ecclesiastical grants of 180
his achievements in Wales 28–9
son of see Breteuil, Roger of
fitz Peter, Geoffrey 292
fitz Pons: Richard 41, 85
Simon 85
Fitzreginald, family of 395
fitz Richard, Robert 296
fitz Rolph, Turstin 29
fitz Stephen, Robert 86, 88, 197
Maredudd, son of 102
Fitzwarin, family of 313
Fulk 296
romance of Fouke le Fitzwaryn 47
Flanders 28, 296
Fleming, John 452
Flemings, 159
their colonies in Wales 98–9
their agricultural enterprise 159–60
Flemingston (Pembroke) 148
Flint (M.9) 334–5, 442
borough of 348, 372, 434
burgesses of 168
castle of 335, 338–9, 358–9
John Eccleston of 168
mayor of 168
Flint (M.10) county of 357, 364–5, 391, 399–400, 407, 451
English settlement in 371
lead mines in 169
Foliot, Gilbert (d. 1187), bishop of Hereford and London 181, 204
Fort, family of Llansteffan 168, 413
Frodsham (Cheshire) 145
Geddington, council at (1177) 291
Gell Carnant, battle of (1096) 89
Genaur'r Glyn (Ceredigion), commote of 337 n.
Geneville, family of 280
Geoffrey of Monmouth 79, 106–7
his History of the Kings of Britain 106–7, 435
Gerald of Wales, Giraldus Cambrensis (d. 1223) 4, 15, 26, 49, 70, 77, 88, 92, 117, 127, 143, 146, 159, 169, 173. 175–6, 178, 183, 185, 204, 289, 419
academic career of 193
as reforming ecclesiastic 194
character and attitudes 102–3, 112–13
his bid for
(p.518) the see of St Davids (1198–1203) 189–91
his Description of Wales 112, 147
his Gemma Ecclesiastica 194
his Itinerary through Wales 112
quotations from 14, 41, 66, 69, 79, 86, 115, 122, 139–41, 150–2, 154, 161–2, 177, 179, 203–4, 206, 238
Gerald of Windsor 86, 92, 102
Angharad, daughter of 102
Nest, wife 43, 86, 102, 122
Gerbord 28
Giffard, family of 280
John (d. 1299) 313, 337, 347, 351, 353, 363, 381
Gilbert, bishop of St Asaph (1143–) 180
Gilbert, John, bishop of Bangor (1372–5) 398
Glamorgan, Morgannwg (M.2) 8–9, 12, 18, 41, 84, 277, 279–80, 283, 289, 293, 296, 306, 322, 333, 377–8, 384, 446, 470
Anglo-Norman settlement in 98–100
castles of 95
Despenser's's rule in 410–11
impact of plague on 425–7
land reclamation 153, 159
lowland 21
native dynasties of 216–17, 244, 275, 321
Norman conquest of 29, 34–5, 37, 51, 88
relations between English and Welsh in 101, 160, 420, 434
revolt of 1294–5 in 382–4
revolt of 1316 in 388
sheep-farming in 156, 159
seignorial authority in 281–2, 322
subinfeudation in 94–5
uplands of 96, 301
Vale of 154; see also Afan; Glynrhondda; Meisgyn; Morgannwg; Senghennydd
Glasbury, Clas ar Wy (Elfael M.1) 7, 148
church dedication of 182
Glasgwm (Elfael) 206
Glastonbury, abbey of 181
Gloucester 46, 293
council of (1175) 222, 290–1
earls of 159 (see also Clare)
St Peter's abbey 106, 142, 180, 187, 195
‘treaty’ of (1240) 300–1
Gloucester, Miles of, earl of Hereford (d. 1143) (D.6) 41, 46, 84, 95
accumulation of estates in Wales 47
sons of 53, 84, 95, 277
Gloucester, Robert earl of (d. 1147) (D.6) 41, 47, 84
agreement with bishop of Llandaff 180
coins issued by 47
Gloucester, Thomas of Woodstock, duke of (d. 1397) 442
Gloucester, William, earl of (d. 1183) (D.6) 93, 188, 271, 273, 291
Isabella, daughter of 293
Gloucestershire 7
Walter, sheriff of 41
Glyncothi (Cantref Mawr) 141
Glyndyfrdwy (Merioneth) 443, 448
Glynrhondda (Glamorgan M.5), commote of 96, 282
native rulers of 222
Goldcliff (Gwent M.4); priory of 181
William, prior of, bishop of Llandaff (1219–29) 192
Golding, Richard 429
Gorddwr (Powys M.7) 6, 233
Goronwy (d. 1268) ab Ednyfed Fychan 263
Goronwy ap Tudur 386
Gower, Henry, bishop of St Davids (1328–47) 414
Gower (Gŵyr), lordship of (M.10) 21, 34, 41, 62, 93, 142–3, 183, 218, 244–5, 271–2, 277, 283, 289, 310, 320, 378, 420, 442, 447, 470
charter of liberties of (1306) 411
dispute over (1318–21) 404
English settlement in 98–100, 422
men of Welsh Gower 127, 423
Norman conquest of 37
sheep farming in 156
Grace Dieu (Monmouth M.4), abbey of 197
Granson, Otto 350
justiciar of north Wales (1284–95) 365, 384
Granville, Richard de 196
Gras, Anselm le, bishop of St Davids (1231–47) 194
Gresford (Bromifield) 96
parish of 187
Grey, family of 395, 400, 410
John 316
Reginald (d. 1308) 348–9, 380, 383
Reginald (d. 1440) 444, 449, 453
Richard of Codnor 454
Grey-Hamilton, inquisition into Welsh law (1278) 344, 346
Greyndour, John 454
Gronw ap Heilyn 268, 340 n., 348
Grosmont (Monmouth) 299
castle of 412
Gruffudd ab lorwerth, bishop of Bangor (1307–9) 375
Gruffudd ab lorwerth 348
Gruffudd ab yr Ynad Coch 208
Gruffudd (d. 1137) ap Cynan (D.5) 10 n., 13, 24–5, 33, 36, 48, 57, 59, 62, 68, 69, 74, 76, 79, 89, 90, 120, 157, 184, 188, 203
biography of 33, 58, 69, 75, 157, 187
descent and early career 33, 58
his rule in Gwynedd 43–5, 77
nature of hegemony of 75, 135
sons of 71
Gruffudd (d. 1286) ap Gwenwynwyn (D.4) 165, 236, 300, 319, 337, 343, 349, 361
arranges for descent of his estates (1278) 231, 337
dispute with Llywelyn over Arwystli (1278–82) 344–7
his policies in Powys 233, 235
plots against Llywelyn and flees to England (1274) 319, 323–4
submits to Llywelyn (1263) 312, 319–20
Gruffudd (d. 1063) ap Llywelyn 24–7, 31, 33, 68, 69
Berddig, court poet of 64, 69
food renders for 64–5, 154
Gruffudd (d. 1244) ap Llywelyn (D.5) 295, 297, 300–2
relations with father 249
Senena, wife of 156
(p.519) Gruffudd ap Llywelyn ap Phylip 418
Groffudd (d. 1191) ap Madog (D.1) 63
Gruffudd (d. 1269) ap Madog (D.4) 235, 309
division of his lands 320
Gruffudd ap Madog, Gloddaith 429
Gruffudd (d. 1091) ap Maredudd (D.2) 59, 70
Gruffudd ap Rhodri (D.5) 239, 305 n.
Gnuffudd (d. 1137) ap Rhys ap Tewdwr (D.2) 10 n., 16, 43, 51, 68, 71, 90
Gwenllian, wife of 128
Gruffudd (d. 1201) ap Rhys (D.3) 67, 72, 73, 204, 224
Maud Braose, wife of, 128, 222
Gruffudd ap Rhys of Senghennydd 322, 388
Gruffudd ap Tudur 349, 370
Gruffudd ap Tudur ap Madog 423
Gruffudd Fychan ap Gruffudd ap Dafydd 125
Gruffudd Llwyd, Sir 386–7, 394, 399, 409–10, 415, 434–5, 437
Gruffudd Maelor (d. 1269) ap Madog (D.4) see Gruffudd ap Madog
Guala, papal legate 242
Gwalchmai 76, 79, 230
gwefy (Welsh tenurial unit) 125–7, 148, 156, 264–5
Gwent (M.2) 6, 9, 12, 17–18, 21, 26, 34, 37, 41, 93, 289
Anglo-Norman settlement in 98–100
food renders in 64
relations between English and Welsh in 101, 273
Welsh dynasty of 59, 93, 176, 222, 244, 275, 321
Gwenwynwyn (d. 1216) ab Owain Cyfeiiog (D.4) 16, 19, 229–30, 233, 242–3, 246 n.
ambitions in Deheubarth 227
bid for hegemony in native Wales 229–30
humiliated by Llywelyn 241, 245
terms imposed on him by John 294
Gwerneigron, agreement of (1241) 301
Gwidigada (Cantref Mawr), commote of 219, 244
Gwilym ap Gruffudd ap Gwilym 416, 446, 457
Gwilym (d. 1375) ap Gruffudd ap Tudur 416
Gwilym ap Gwrwared 284
Gwilym ap Tudur 443, 457 gwlad 12
Gwleder, mother of Hoedlyw 128, 188
Gwrgant ap Rhys 64
Gwrtheymion, commote of (M.2) 63, 279, 301–11, 315, 343
bailiff of 265
native rulers of 210, 222, 244, 273–4, 302
Gwynedd 11, 13, 18, 20, 25, 59, 216–7
bondmen of 120–1
governance of 252–7
its domination of Wales in the thirteenth century 236–51, 308–29
its pre-eminence in early-mid twelfth century 43–5, 48–9
written records from 112; see also Welsh principalities
individual princes esp. Gruffudd ap Cynan;
Llywelyn ab lorwerth;
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd;
Owain Gwynedd
Gwynedd, princes of: favourite residences of 119
hall of 152
title of princes of 239, 247, 253; see also individual princes
Gwynfardd Brycheiniog 17, 19, 208, 221
Gwynllŵg, Newport, lordship of (M.2, M.10) 9, 34–5, 41, 74, 84, 277, 282, 289, 296
land reclamation in 153
sheep rearing in 159
Gyffylliog (Dyffryn Clwyd) 131
Hanmer, family of 371, 422
Sir David 448
John 466
Margaret 448
Harlech, (co. Merioneth M.9) 382, 413, 450
borough 372, 427
castle 254, 355, 357–60, 383, 385, 443, 445, 447, 454
Harold Godwinson, king of England (1066) 6, 9, 24, 28
Tostig, brother of 26
victory over Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 26–7
Harvard, family of 422
Hastings John (d. 1313) 380
Haughmond, abbey of (Salop) 196
cartulary of 111–12
Haverford (Rhos) 46, 159, 167, 170, 219, 242, 387, 446, 470
castle of 37, 446
church of 188
district of 37, 272
Dominican friary at 201
Havering, John, deputy-justiciar 1284–7 and Justiciar 1295–1301 of north Wales 366, 384
Hawarden (M.3) 51, 314–5
castle of 90, 315, 338, 348, 383
Hay, lordship of (M.10) 420, 428
English settlement in 158
population in 148
Hay 95, 272
Bedell family of 452
castle of 95
church of 187
Hen Domen (Montgomery) 91; see also Montgomery
Hen Gwrt, Llandeilo Gresynni (Monmouth) 151
Henri ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn 102
Henry I, king of England (1100–35) 35, 84, 87, 99, 189–90
chaplain of wife of 179
relations with Welsh dynasties 42–4
rôle in subjugation of Wales 40–2
Henry II, king of England (1154–89) 46, 49, 103, 144, 233, 289
accord with Welsh princes 5, 94, 271, 290–2
attitude to Marcher lords 53, 94, 275, 291–2
expeditions of to Wales (1157, 1158, 1165) 51–3
Henry, son of, 52
policy towards Wales 52–4, 94, 290–2
relations with Lord Rhys 52–5, 218, 222–3, 275, 290–2
Henry III, king of England (1216–72) 9, 268, 338
campaigns of in Wales 266, 298–9, 310
(p.520) his policies in Wales (1218–40) 297–300
resurgence of royal power in Wales (1240–56) 300–7
significance of his reign in Welsh affairs 299–300
Henry IV, king of England 1399–1413: as lord of Brecon 439, 442
expeditions to Wales (1400–3) 443–4, 454
his problems in suppressing Glyn Dŵr revolt 454–4
Henry V, king of England (1413–22) 394
as prince of Wales 455
Henry (d. 1163) ab Arthen 178
Henry of Newburgh (d. –post 1166) 47
Herbrandston (Pembroke) 148
Hereford 25, 27, 46, 103, 166, 169, 293, 298
bishop of 25, 313, 395
earl of 88 (see also fitz Osbern
Gloucester, Miles of;
Ralph of Vexin);
mint at 162
Hereford, Master Walter of 359
Herefordshire 6–7, 28, 41, 59, 70
sheriff of 25
Herewald, bishop of Llandaff (1056–1104) 177–9, 189
Hergest, Red Book of, Llyfr Coch Hergest 200, 418
Hertford, earl of see Clare
Hervé, bishop of Bangor (1092–1109) 44, 179
Higden, Ranulf 424
Hirfryn, commote of (Cantref Bychan) 320, 337, 347
Holland, family of 422
Gruffudd ap David 424
Holt (Bromfield and Yale M.9): borough of 372
castle of 360
Holyhead see Caergybi
Holywell, Treffynnon (Tegeingl M.8): castle of 241, 274
shrine of 206
Hopcyn ap Tomas ab Einion of Ynysdawy 417–18, 435, 449
Hope, Hopedale, Yr Hob (M.9, M.10) 31, 363–4, 434, 441
castle of 350, 358
commote of 336, 339
men of 141, 386, 428
Hopton, Walter 340
judicial comission headed by (1278) 340–1, 344
Horseland Moat (Glamorgan) 91
Houghton, Adam, bishop of St Davids (1362–89) 439
Hugh bishop of St Davids (1362–89) 439
Hugh, bishop of St Asaph (1235–40) 194
Hwlcyn Llwyd 452
Hyddgen, battle of (1401) 453
Hywel (d. 1185) ab Ieuaf of Arwystli 56–7, 68
Hywel ab lorwerth ab Owain of Caerleon 72, 93, 102, 273
Hywel (d. 1118) ab Ithel 56, 75
Hywel (d. 1078) ab Owain (D.2) 59, 73
Hywel (d. 1170) ab Owain Gwynedd (D.5) 11, 13, 77, 129
mother of 11
Hywel ap Goronwy, Master 416, 441
Hywel (d. 1106) ap Goronwy ap Cadwgan 62
Hywel ap Gruffudd 381
Hywel (d. 1216) ap Gruffudd ap Cynan (D.5) 188, 239
Hywel ap Gruffudd ab Ednyfed 349
Hywel ap Maredudd of Glynrhondda and Meisgyn 282, 286, 308
Gwenllian, sister of 215 n.
Hywel ap Meurig 158, 284, 323, 340 n.
Hywel (d. 1204) ap Rhys ap Gruffudd (D.3) 54, 103, 224
Hywel (d. 1282) ap Rhys Gryg (D.3) 319–20
notaries of 264
Hywel ap Tudur ab Ithel Fychan 451
Hywel Dda (d. ?950) 77, 260
‘laws of’ 18, 65, 133, 221
Hywel ‘y Fwyall’, Sir 399
Iâl (E. Yale), commote of (M.2) 12, 140, 230–1
annexed by Gwynedd 48
recovered by Powys 52; see also Bromfield and Yale
Iestyn ap Gwrgant 59
Ieuan ap Gruffudd Llwyd 416
Ieuan ap Maredudd 452
Ieuan (d. 1137) ap Sulien 11, 13, 16, 115, 178
Ieuan Wyn, le Poursuivant d'Amour 438
Iolo Goch 129, 151, 154, 202, 408, 415, 417
Iorwerth ab Owain of Caerleon 275
Iorwerth (d. 1111) ap Bleddyn (D. 1) 36, 137
Iorwerth ap Cadwgan and his descendants 120
Iorwerth ap Cyriog 124
Iorwerth ap Llywarch of Denbigh 394
Iorwerth ap Madog, jurist 134
Iorwerth Ddu 409
Iorwerth Ddu ab Ednyfed Gam 429
Iorwerth Foel 342
Iorwerth Goch ap Maredudd (D. 1) 58, 67, 72
Ireland 25, 34, 43, 48, 73, 86, 88, 144, 291, 295–6, 302, 349, 367, 370, 387
compared with Wales 392, 3–7, 424–5, 459
conquest of S3, 271
Irish 74
Links with Wales 10–11, 145, 148, 161, 168, 444
Isaled (Denbigh), commote of 137
English settlement in 371
Isle of Man 10
Ithel ap Bleddyn 342
Ithel (d. 1124) ap Rhiryd (D.I) 68 409
John, king of England (1199–1216) 18, 144. 289
campaigns in Wales (1211–12) 42, 238, 241, 266, 293, 295–6
policy in Wales 226, 229, 235, 239–42, 268, 292–7
(p.521) Kenfig, Cynffig (Glamorgan M.3) 161, 273
borough of 141, 166
castle of 51
Kidwelly (Cydweli M.3) 218, 445
borough of 37, 165–6, 413
castle of 37, 281, 360, 447
Morton family of 452
Kington 277
Kinnerley (Oswestry) 280
Knighton (Maelienydd) 6
Knockin 40
Knovill, Bogo, justiciar of West Wales 340, 348, 350, 358
Knucklas (Maelienydd) 6
Lacy, family of 84, 85, 248, 277, 280, 306, 395
Gilbert (d. 1160) 47
Henry (d. 1311), earl of Lincoln 363, 371, 384–5
Hugh (d. c.1120) 41, 196
Roger 84
Walter 29
Lamphey (Pembroke), episcopal palace at 414
Lancashire 53
Lancaster: Edmund (d. 1296), earl of 333, 339
Henry (d. 1361), duke of 411, 433
John of Gaunt (d. 1399), duke of 398, 439, 442
Thomas (d. 1322), earl of 394, 408
Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury (1070–89)
Langley Geoffrey 307
Langtoft, Pierre 142, 352
Laugharne (M.3) 54
castle of 37, 101, 281, 360
Lawrence, John, deputy justiciar of south Wales 441
Leckwith (Glamorgan) 96
Leia. Peter de, bishop of St Davids (1176–98) 105, 184, 191
Leland, John 150
le Mans, family of 95
Le Marreys, family of 422
Leominster 169
Leominster, Hugh 375
Le Soer, family of 422
Lestrange, family of 40, 233, 448
Hamo 313
John (d. 1276) 313
Roger 348, 350–1, 353, 358, 363
Letterston (Pebidiog) 98
Lewis ab leuan, bishop of Bangor (1404–8) 445. 451
Lichfield Gospels, marginalia of 112
Lifris of Llancarfan 11, 74, 116, 173, 178, 195
Limesi, Ralph de 29
Lincoln 169
earl of see Lacy, Henry
Lire, abbey of (Normandy) 29, 180
Llanaber (Ardudwy) 130, 140
church of 188
Llanarmon (Iâl) 62
Llanbadarn Fawr (Ceredigion M.3) 32, 100, 105, 303. 348
abbot of 176
bailiwick of 364
church of 186, 188. 195
clas at 174, 178, 180, 195, 197
court of 340
Llanbadarn Fawr (Maelienydd), church of 9
Llanbeblig (Arfon) 67
Llancarfan (Glamorgan) 144, 174, 180
clas. of 178, 195
parish of 186
Llandaff 419
bishop of 40 (see also individual bishops)
bishop's palace at 376
Book of 105, 173, 183
cathedral of 105, 145, 178, 182, 184
cathedral organization of 185
cathedral stalls at 177
Llandaff, bishopric of 174
definition of 182–3
diocesan organization in 185
ecclesiastical mythology of 183
estates of 180
parochial organization in 186–7
Llanddewibrefi (Ceredigion) 195, 209, 376, 400
Llandeilo (Cantref Mawr M.4) 165, 174
church of 183, 195
Llandeilo Ferwallt, Bishopston (Gower) 183
Llandinam (Arwystli M.4) 132–3, 261
church of 174, 178
motto at 30
Llandochau, Llandough (Glamorgan) 183
clas of 195
Llandrinio (Powys) 182
Llaodudoch, St Dogmaels (Cemais M.4) 10
clas church of 181
Tironian priory of 181, 192, 196
Llandyfaelog (Brecon) 90
Llan-faes (Anglesey, M.8) 163, 165, 259, 359. 372, 398, 419
friary at 201, 251
Llanfihangel Genau'r-glyn (Ceredigion) 256
Llanfihangel-y-traethau (Ardudwy) 105
church of 128, 188
Llangewydd (Glamorgan) 199
Llangollen (Nanheudwy, Chirkland) 8
bridge at 144
church of 174
Llangors (Talgarth), church of 187
Llangynhafal (Dyffryn Clwyd), church of 130
Llangynwyd (Glamorgan) 51
Llangynydd (Gower) 181
Llanidloes (Arwystli) 165, 259
Llanilltud Fawr, Llantwit Major (Glamorgan M.4) 96, 144, 183
clas of 195
Llanllugan (Cedewain M.4), abbey of 197
Llanllŷr (Gwrtheyrnion M.4), nunnery of 197, 121
Llanrwst (Rhos) 165
Llansteffan (Cantref Gwarthaf M.3, M.10) 168, 413, 470
castle of 90, 223, 281, 360, 412, 453
lordship of 219, 272
steward of 451
Llantarnam (Gwent M.4), abbey of 197, 273, 282, 451
Llanthony, Llanddewi Nant Hodni (Ewias M.4), abbey of 196
Llantriddyd (Glamorgan M.3), castle of 86, 91
(p.522) Llantrisant (Glamorgan), castle of 281, 385
field arrangements in 156
Llanwenllwyfo (Anglesey) 148, 150
Llanymddyfri, Llandovery (Cantref Bychan M.5), castle of 37, 90, 93, 221, 224, 255, 337, 339, 348
Llanynys (Builth), cross at 9
Llanynys (Dyffryn Clwyd), church of 195
open fields in 156
Llawhaden 395
hospital of 376
Llawysgrif Hendregadredd 201, 418
Llwchwr, Loughor (Gower), castle of 90–1
Llwydfaen (Arllechwedd) 156
Llygad Gŵr 317
Llŷn, cantref of (M.2) 13, 32, 74, 88, 119, 140, 239, 306, 308, 335
cereal-growing in 154
dean of 441
men of 129
nobility of 69
Llynfi, river 37, 148
Llysdulas (Anglesey) 148, 150, 156
Llysfasi (Dyffryn Clwyd) 62
Llyswyrny (Glamorgan) 96
Llywel (Brecon), 167, 433
Llywelyn (d. 1240) ab Iorwerth (D.5) 10, 14, 18, 257, 259, 263–6, 268, 273–5, 277, 286, 304
arranges succession of Dafydd 192–3, 249–50, 300
attitude to Powys 239
control of his own family 239, 267–8
death of 300
estimate of 250–1
his leadership in native Wales 241–7
his relations with kings of England 239–44, 249–50, 294–6, 297–300
his years of triumph (1212–18) 242–3
Joan, wife of 10, 239, 249, 295
marriage proposals of 194
nature of his overlordship in Wales 244–7
policy with regard to his sons 249–50
power over Deheubarth 227
relationship with Marcher lords 247–9, 274
rise to power 239
title of 236, 253
treaty with French (1212) 215 n., 243
Llywelyn ab Owain 361
Llywelyn ab Ynyr, bishop of St Asaph (1293–1314) 375
Llywelyn (d. 1282) ap Gruffudd (D.5) 18, 262, 264–5, 268, 275, 449
career of: asserts himself during his uncle's lifetime 309
comes to terms with Henry III (1247) 303–4, 309
begins to rebuild Gwynedd's power 309
defeats his brothers (1255) 305, 309
bis power triumphant in Wales (1256–67) 310–20
adopts title ‘prince of Wales’ (1258) 253, 311, 317
centrality of middle March in his strategy 312
exploits tensions of English politics (1263–7) 312–14
success confirmed at treaty of Montgomery (1267) 314–17
nature of his leadership in native Wales 316–17
relationship with his brothers 318
attitude towards princelings of native Wales 318–20
increasing tension with Marcher lords (after 1267) 321–3
tensions within the principality of Wales 323–4
plot against his life (1274) 323–4
deteriorating relationship with English crown (1273–7) 326–8
estimate of his behaviour and ambitions (1267–77) 328–30
submits to Edward (1277) 334–8
relations with Edward I (1277–82) 341–8
policies and aspirations (1277–82) 343–8
his rôle in revolt (of 1282) 348–53
his death 279, 353
other topics: armies of 254–5
coronet of 253 n., 355
disputes with churchmen 192, 203, 268, 325–6
estimate of income 267
financial pressure exerted by 257–9
relations with papacy 192–3, 201
social and economic developments under his rule 118
family: Eleanor de Montfort, wife of 327–8, 341, 351
Gwenllian, daughter of 362
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (Maelor) ap Madog (D.4) 324, 347–8
Llywelyn (d. 1160) ap Madog (D.1) 58
Llywelyn (d. 1343) ap Madog 399
Llywelyn (d. 1023) ap Seisyll 59
Llywelyn ap Tudur 418
Llywelyn Bren, revolt of (1316) 388, 412
Llywelyn Fardd 176, 188, 205
Llywelyn of Bromfield, bishop of St Asaph (1293–1314) 185
London, treaty of (1241) 301
Londres, family of 96
flocks of 159
Maurice de 41, 159
Mabelfyw, commote of (Ceredigion) 320
Mabinogi 11, 17, 20–1, 64, 70, 75, 77, 104, 116–17, 128. 129, 136, 164
Machen (Gwynllŵg) 274
castle of 275
Machynlleth (Cyfeiliog M.7) 165, 259
parliament of (1404) 445
Madog ab Einion ap Maredudd 137, 259, 268, 342
Madog (d. 1140) ab Idnerth, sons of 101
Madog (d. 1236) ap Gruffudd (D.4) 12–13, 235, 244
Madog ap Gwallter 202, 205, 208
Madog ap Llywelyn 382–3
son of 386
Madog (d. 1160) ap Maredudd (D.1) 17, 46, 52, 57–9, 67, 72, 74, 75, 157, 229, 233
division of Powys after his death 50, 58, 230
his rule in Powys 49–50
Madog ap Rhiryd (D.1) 68, 71, 72, 74
(p.523) Madog Fychan (d. 1277) ap Gruffudd Maelor (D.4), sons of 337, 361
Maelgwn (d. 1231) ap Rhys (D.3) 72, 204, 224, 226, 242, 293
Maelgwn Fychan (d. 1257) ap Maelgwn (D.3) 226, 301
Maelienydd, cantref or lordship of (M.1) 34, 37, 50, 51, 82, 142. 241, 244, 248, 274, 279, 301, 312, 315, 321–2, 378, 471
bailiffs of 265
charter of liberties of 471
conquest of 85, 96, 101, 322
financial yield of 402
Welsh dynasty or ruler of 48, 101, 216–17, 227, 246–7, 273–4, 302
Maelor Gymraeg, commote of (M.1) 51, 230, 340
field patterns in 156
raid into (1177) 232, 274; see also Bromfield and Yale
Maelor Saesneg, commote of (M.2) 4, 230, 340, 364, 371. 409
Maenan (Caerns.) 355, 373
Maenordeilo (Cantref Mawr), commote of 340
Maes Moydog, battle of (1295) 383–4
Magna Carta 285, 296–7
Magnus Barefoot, king of Norway 10, 35
Malcolm IV (1153–65) king of Scotland 52
Malmesbury, William of 3
Manasser, Master 358
Manorbier (Pembroke M.3), castle of 37, 92
Map, Walter 15, 67, 112–13, 116–17, 123, 175, 204
his Courtiers’ Trifles 106, 112
March, earls of see Mortimer
March of Wales see Wales, March of
Marcross, Marcroes (Glamorgan): Butler family of 273
Philip of 159
Maredudd (d. 1072) ab Owain (D.2) 24, 59, 73
Angharad, daughter of 122
Maredudd (d. 1265) ab Owain (D.3) 118
descendants of 337, 347
Maredudd ab Owain 457
Maredudd (d. 1132) ap Bleddyn (D.1) 42
Maredudd (d. 1125) ap Cadwgan (D.1) 72
Maredudd (d. 1212) ap Cynan (D.5) 197, 239
sons of 301
Maredudd (d. 1155) ap Gruffudd 77
Maredudd ap Gruffudd of Caerleon 306, 321
Maredudd (d. 1256) ap Madog (D.4) 244
Maredudd ap Madog ap Llywelyn 126
Maredudd ap Madog of Maelienydd 452
Maredudd ap Rhicert 306, 308 n.
Maredudd (d. 1244) ap Rhobert of Cydewain 216, 231, 261
Maredudd (d. 1271) ap Rhys Gryg (D.3) 144, 226–7, 309–11, 315, 319
alliance with Llywelyn (1258) 311, 319
his homage secured by Llywelyn (1270) 323, 326
submits to Llywelyn (1261) 311, 319
trial of (1259) 254, 316, 319
Margam (Glamorgan M.4): abbey of 153, 179, 196–200, 282–3
flocks of 157, 170
library of 200
number of monks at 199
Marshall (D.6), family of 277–82, 284, 299, 306
Anselm, earl of Pembroke (d. 1245) 279
Gilbert, earl of Pembroke (d. 1241) 226, 275, 279, 301, 304
Richard, earl of Pembroke (d. 1234) 248, 298, 313, 404
Walter, earl of Pembroke (d. 1245) 280, 301
William, earl of Pembroke (d. 1219) 277
William, earl of Pembroke (d. 1231) 215 n., 226, 248, 271, 277, 281, 297–8
Martin, David, bishop of St Davids (1296–1328) 376
Mathrafal (Powys M.7) 217, 233
Matilda, ‘Empress’, daughter of Henry I: 47
Mauny, Walter 398
Mawddach, river (M.1) 143–4, 236
Mechain, cantref of (M.2) 13, 230, 244, 261
rulers of 216, 230, 233, 254
Meddyfnych (Cantref Bychan) 140, 149
Mefenydd (Ceredigion), commote of 337
Meifod (Powys M.7) 8, 233
church of 175, 188, 195, 205, 207
Meilyr (d. 1081) ap Rhiwallon 33
Meirchion ap Rhys (D.2) 73
Meirionydd, cantref of (M.2) 8, 13, 20, 43–4, 48, 75, 219, 229, 238, 291, 301–2, 310, 343
castle in 31
dynasty of 216, 382
men of 74, 119, 129
Meisgyn (Glamorgan M.5) commote of 96, 282
native rulers of 222
Meliden (Tegeingl) 149
Merioneth, county of (M.10) 365
commutation in 163
craftsmen in 164
population of 147
sheriff of 386, 398, 409, 411
tax of 1292 in 382
Merlin (Myrddin), prophecies of 79, 106, 379, 449
Mersete (Salop M.1), hundred of 6
Merthyr Mawr (Glamorgan) 141
Milford Haven 446
Moat Lane (Arwystli) 30
Mochnant, commote of (M.2) 230
Mold, Moldsdale (M.3, M.10) 301–2, 315, 339, 348, 384, 471
Molis, Nicholas de 238, 206, 302
Môn see Anglesey
Monmouth (M.3) 9, 106, 165–6, 272–3, 293
bridge at, 166
John of 306
Monnow Gate at 413
prior of 106, 181
Monmouth, lordship of (M.10) 173, 277, 398, 442, 471
demesne farming in 399
English and Welsh in 159–60
Monmouth, John of, bishop of Llandaff (1297–1322) 376
(p.524) Monnow, river 29
Montague, family of 404
Montalt, Robert 315
Montfort: Peter 316
Simon de (d. 1265) 313, 316
death of 313–14
relations with Llywelyn, 313–14
troop of 152, 254
Montgomery (M.10) 7, 273, 303, 313, 321, 333, 341, 383
borough of 166
castle of 9, 30, 244, 247, 255, 266, 289, 298–9, 304
lord of 50
lordship of 242, 280, 299, 357, 364, 394, 471
vale of 90, 98
Montgomery, family of 231
Arnulf, earl of Pembroke 35, 37, 39, 83–4, 85–6, 91, 145
Hugh, earl of Shrewsbury (d. 1098) 10, 35, 85
Robert, earl of Shrewsbury 35–6, 83–4
Roger, earl of Shrewsbury (d. 1094) 28, 30, 39–40, 85
Morfran, abbot of Tywyn 176
Morgan (d. 1158) ab Owain of Gwynllŵg 64
Morgan (d. 1128) ap Cadwgan (D.1) 72
Morgan (d. 1248) ap Hywel 275
Morgan ap Maredudd 320, 382, 384, 386
Morgan (d. 1251) ap Rhys (D.3) 67
Morgan Gam 245
Morgannwg, kingdom of 12, 59, 87, 182; see also Glamorgan
Morlais (Glamorgan), castle of 281, 383
Mortimer: Edmund (d. 1408) 444
Hugh (d. c. 1150) 51, 82
Hugh (d. 1180) 52
Hugh (d. 1227) 297
Ralph (d. 1246) 248, 279, 301, 309
Roger (d. 1214) 85, 275, 279, 291–2
Roger (d. 1282) 276, 311–16, 322, 337, 343, 345, 349, 351, 353, 363
Roger of Chirk (d. 1326) 144, 363, 395, 397, 404, 410
Mortimer, earls of March: Edmund (d. 1381) 399
Edmund (d. 1425) 446
Roger (d. 1330) 279, 397, 404–7, 410
Roger (d. 1360) 404
Roger (d. 1398) 395, 397, 408, 442
Mortimer, family of 7, 37, 85, 101, 247, 279, 282
estates of 395, 400, 404
power and income in Wales in the fourteenth century 395, 402–4
relations with Welshmen 101, 158, 223, 275–6, 284, 410
tenants of 408
Mowbray, Thomas, duke of Norfolk (d. 1399) 442
Mynydd Carn, battle of (1081) 33, 62, 68
Myrddin See Merlin
Nanheudwy, commote of (M.2) 30, 44, 230
Nantconwy, commote of, commutation in 163
Narberth, Arberth (Dyfed M.10) 62
lordship of 419, 441
Neath (Glamorgan M.3) 273, 422
Neath (Glamorgan M.4): abbey of 190–200, 248, 282, 414
chronicle of 93
flocks of 157, 170
floor titles of 196
grange of, at Monknash 199
Nefyn (Llŷn M.8) 163, 165, 253, 259. 383, 456
‘round table’ at (1284) 355
Neigwl (Llŷn M.8) 197
Nevern see Nyfer
Newborough, Niwbwrch (Anglesey) 141, 372
Newburgh, William of 139, 169
Newcastle (Glamorgan) 51
Newgale (Pembroke) 141
New House (Pembroke) 147
New Moat (Pembroke) 147
Newport (Gwynllŵg) 274, 444, 471
lordship of 400, 403, 420
Newton Nottage (Glamorgan) 147
Nicholls, Benedict bishop of Bangor (1408–18) 447
Norreys, family of 196
Nyfer, Nevern (Cemais) 219
crow at 11
Offa's Dyke, Clawdd Offa (M. 1) 3–4, 19, 25, 30
Ogmore (Glamorgan M.5) 272
alien settlement in 99–100
Englishry of 422
impact of plague on 425, 427, 429
impact of revolt of Glyn Dŵr on 456
manor of 96
mesne-lordship of 96, 419
Orderic Vitalis 30, 82–3, 87
Osbern of Orgères 87
Oswestry (M.3, M.10) 6, 8, 26, 40, 51, 53–4, 169, 333, 341, 344, 347, 471
captured by Welsh (1149) 46, 50
castle of 30, 274, 289
constable of 347
lordship of 34, 274, 276, 339. 348, 378, 384, 405, 442
survey of (1393) 400
Ottobuono, cardinal 314
Overton (Maelor Saesneg M.7) 235, 355, 372
Owain (d. 1105) ab Edwin 56
Owain (d. 1116) ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn (D.1) 10 n., 43, 68, 71
Owain ap Dafydd (D.5) 305 n.
Owain (d. 1282) ap Gruffudd (D.5) 301, 303–4, 308, 361
defeat and imprisonment by Llywelyn 309, 318
secures share of paternal inheritance 1277, 335
Owain ap Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn 323–4, 343
Owain ap Hywel Dda, descendants of 73
Owain (d. 1261) ap Maredudd 312
Owain (d. 1275) ap Maredudd (D.3) 319
Owain Cyfeiliog (d. 1197) ap Gruffudd (D.4) 13, 17, 58, 103, 229, 231
character of 77, 233
Hirlas Owain poem by 66
submits to Lord Rhys 75
Owain Glyn Dŵr 399, 436, 443–59 passim
character, background and upbringing 447–9
(p.525) chancellor of 450
estates of 416, 423–4
Gruffudd, his son 446
his house at Sycharth 151, 415, 448
his secretary 446
household prophet 449
Maredudd, his son 456
title of 449
wife of 129
Owain Glyn Dŵr, revolt of 424, 434
growth of tension in Wales prior to the revolt 437–43
impact on Welsh society and economy 456–7
its national character and aspirations 449–50
narrative account of 443–7
opposition to within Wales 452–3
parliamentary response to 443
penal legislation to wake of 458–9
reasons for eventual failure of 455–6
reasons for its long duration 453–5
response of English government and parliament 457–8
support for within Wales 448–50
tactics of Welsh in 453–4
weakness of English military response 454
Owain Gwynedd (d. 1170) ap Gruffudd ap Cynan (D.5) 17, 46, 58, 68, 70, 72, 76, 79, 129, 157, 189
character of his reign in Gwynedd, 48–9, 77
Christina, his wife 71, 129
division of kingdom on death of 71, 238–9
ecclesiastical policies of 189–90, 194
relations with Henry II: 51–3
Owain Lawgoch (d. 1378) 436, 438, 448–9
Owen, George of Henllys (d. 1613) 160, 423
Owen, John 413
Oxford: council of (1177) 291
Welsh students at 193, 451
Painscastle (also known as Maudcastle) (Elfael M.3) 9, 298, 314–15
battle of (1198) 229, 292
borough of 167
castle of 247, 256, 289, 298–9
Paris, Matthew 139, 193, 306–7, 310
Pauncefoot, Grimbald 350
Pebidiog, cantref of 395
Pecham, John, archbishop of Canterbury (1279–1292) 143, 187, 206–7, 372
attitude towards and visitation of Welsh church after the Conquest 373–5
negotiations with Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (1282) 351–2, 363
views on Welsh customs 127, 150, 367–8, 374–5
Pederton, Walter 366
Pembroke (M.3) 54, 144, 454
borough of 165, 167
castle of 34–5, 37, 40, 86, 90–2, 255, 277, 281, 412, 438
mint at 162
priory of 181
Pembroke, Penfro, county and lordship of (M.10) 21, 46, 62, 272, 274, 277, 283, 289, 425, 454
Anglo-Norman settlement in 37, 98–100
county of 39, 42, 46
English and Welsh in 160
men of 257, 280, 409
sheep-rearing in 97, 156
Pembroke, earls of see Montgomery; Clare; Marshall
Penllyn, cantref of (M.7) 230, 231, 238, 254
annexed by Gwynedd 216, 229, 241
Penaran in 147
Penmaen (Gower), castle of 99
Penmon (Anglesey M.4): Augustinian priory of 105, 196
church of 188
clas of 196, 251
cross at 11
Pennal (Merioneth) 450
Pennant Melangell (Powys), church of 188
shrine at 105
Pennard (Gower) 99
Penprys (Arwystli) 256
Penrhyn (Caerns.), estate of 423
Penychen, cantref of 21
Percy, family 444–5
Henry (d. 1403) 444
Henry (d. 1408), earl of Northumberland 446–7
Thomas (d. 1403), earl of Worcester 455
Perfedd (Cantref Bychan), commote of 377, 347
Perfedd (Ceredigion), commote of 337 n.
Perfeddwlad (M.8), also known as Gwynedd Is Conwy or the Four Cantrefs; see Rhos; Rhufoniog; Dyffryn Clwyd; Tegeingl
Philip ab Ifor, Master 264
Picard, Pichard 86, 91
family of 281
Pilleth (Radnor) battle of (1402) 444
Pipton-on-Wye, agreement of (1265) 314
Plas Ucha (Merioneth) 415
Pool (Powys) see Welshpool
Porthaml (Anglesey) 148
Porth Wygyr (Anglesey) 16
Portskewett (Gwent M.1) 6, 9, 16, 26, 143
Powys 8, 13, 20, 49, 52–3, 60, 62, 227–36
as a Marcher lordship 394, 404
divisions within dynasty of 62, 72
geographical extent and traditions of 230–1
periods of supremacy of 43, 45–6, 229
vulnerability of 230–1; see also Welsh principalities
Powys northern and southern; individual princes
Powys, northern (Powys Fadog) 230, 232, 235, 340
division of 217, 235
extent of 230
princes of 230–1, 235, 305, 310, 320, 333, 335, 337, 361; see also individual princes
Powys, southern (Powys Wenwynwyn) 302, 310, 337, 343
annexation of 241, 243–5
extent of 230
princes of 229–36
steward of 262–3; see also individual princes esp. Gwenwynwyn; Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn; Owain Cyfeiliog
Prestatyn (Tegeingl) 8, 49
Presteigne 9
(p.526) prid (short-term vifgage of land by Welsh custom) 164, 258, 260, 400, 423–4, 428, 433
Priestholm, Ynys Lannog (Anglesey M.4) 179
Prydydd y Moch 245
Puleston, family of 37, 422
Roger, sheriff of Anglesey (1284–95) 380, 383
Pumlumon(Plynlimon) range 140
Pwllcrochan (Pembroke) 188
Pwllheli (Llŷn M.8) 165, 253, 256, 259
Radnor (M.3) 6–7, 17, 277, 343
battle of (1196) 223, 274
borough 167
Radnor, lordship of (M.10) 34, 37, 96, 274, 472
English settlement in 158
Radyr (Glamorgan) 427
Raglan (Usk) 85
Ralph ‘of the Vexin’, earl of Hereford 26
Rede, Thomas 413
Rhaeadr (Gwrtheyrnion M.5), castle of 219, 273
Rhicert ap Cadwaladr (D.5) 239
Rhigyfarch (d. 1099), ap Sulien 11, 35, 62, 88, 100, 118, 176, 178, 195
biography of St David by 11, 100, 173
revision of 184
Rhirid ap Carwet 117
Rhirid Flaidd 68
Rhiwallon (d. 1070) ap Cynfyn 24
Gwladus, daughter of 122
Rhodri (d. 1195) ab Owain Gwynedd (D.5) 10 n., 197, 239
marriage of 73
Rhodri ap Gruffudd (D.5) 308, 342, 361
quitclaims share of paternal inheritance to Llywelyn (1272) 318, 335–6
Rhos (Dyfed M.2), cantref of 98–9
Flemings to 98–9, 160
men of 257
Rhos (Gwynedd Is Conwy M.3), cantref of 31, 42–4, 140, 303, 337, 340
dynasty of 56, 59, 75
inhabitants 74, 384
Rhosili (Gower), open-fields in 155
Rhuddlan (Tegeingl M.3) 26, 334–5, 338, 341, 354, 441, 422
borough of 31, 90, 97–8, 165, 167, 348, 372, 423, 434
capture of (1167) 49, 53
castle of 31, 62, 90, 93, 97, 256, 338–9, 358, 363
Dominican friary at 201–2
mint at 31, 98, 162
Robert of see Robert; see also Cledemutha
Rhufoniog, cantref of (M.2) 21, 31, 43–4, 140, 303, 336
dynasty of 56, 59, 75
men of 384
Rhwng Gwy a Hafren (M.1) 9
Rhydderch ab Ieuan Llwyd 418
Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch 418
Rhydderch (d. 1076) ap Caradog (D.2) 58, 73
Rhydorddwy (Flintshire) 415
Rhyd Taradyr 16
Rhydygors, castle of (M.3) 34–5, 37, 91, 93
Rhymni, river 29
Rhys, Lord see Rhys ap Grufudd
Rhys ab Ednyfed 325
Rhys ab Edrud ap Marchudd, gwely of 125
Rhys (d. 1078) ab Owain (D.2) 58–9, 67, 73
Rhys ap Gruffudd, The Lord Rhys, Yr Arglwydd Rhys (d. 1197) (D.2, D.3) 17, 19, 49, 53, 57, 67, 104, 156–7, 164, 177, 206, 268, 271, 274
achievement of 223
cultural and religious developments during his rule 17, 195, 197, 221
daughter of 73, 263
feuds within family of (1189–97) 244–7
his rule in Deheubarth 51–4, 218–24
importance of rule in legal and administrative matters 60, 65, 258, 260
raids and campaigns of (1189–96) 223–4, 274
relations with and hegemony over other Welsh rulers 54, 75, 221–2
relations with Anglo-Normans 103, 222, 271
relations with English crown 52–4, 94, 222–4, 290–2
retinue of 67
Rhys (d. 1356) ap Gruffudd, Sir 386, 394, 410, 415–17
Rhys ap Gruffudd ab Ednyfed Fychan 340 n., 342, 349
Rhys ap Gruffudd of Builth 353
Rhys ap Hywel, Master 394
Rhys (d. 1292) ap Maredudd (D.3) 168, 323, 337, 340, 349, 361, 363
revolt of 380–1
wife of 380
Rhys (d. 1377) ap Roppert 417
Rhys (d. 1093) ap Tewdwr (D.2) 25, 29, 42, 73, 92, 176
asserts mastery in his own dynasty 59, 70
assessment of 33–4
Nest, daughter of 71, 86, 102
Rhys ap Tudur 443, 447
Rhys Ddu 451
Rhys Fychan (d. 1302) ap Rhys ap Maelgwn (D.3) 335, 337 n., 361
Rhys Fychan (d. 1271) ap Rhys Mechyll (D.3) 226, 253, 305, 309
Rhys Gryg (d. 1233) ap Rhys (D.3) 224, 243–4, 298
clerk of 264
Rhys leuanc (d. 1222) ap Gruffudd ap Rhys (D.3) 224, 226
Rhys Mechyll (d. 1244) ap Rhys Gryg (D.3) 226
Rhys Wyndod (d. 1302) ap Rhys Fychan (D.3)337, 347, 361, 380
Richard I, king of England (1189–99) 293
relations with Welsh princes under 223–4, 292
Richard II, king of England (1377–99) 394, 442
builds, up his power in Wales and Chester 406–7
(p.527) Richard's Castle (Hereford M.3) 89
Ringstead, Thomas bishop of Bangor (1357–66) 438–9
Roath (Glamorgan) 96
Robert of Rhuddlan (also Tilleul) 30–1, 82–3, 87, 180
Roger, earl of Hereford (d. 1155) 52
Ruthin, Rhuthun (Dyffryn Clwyd M.9):
borough of 167, 372–3, 421
castle of 338, 351, 358, 360, 383
Ruyton (co. Salop) 40
St Asaph 189
bishop of 189
canons’ houses at 456
cathedral of 351, 370, 414
estates of 121, 428
Llyfr Coch Asaph (Red Book of St Asaph) 163; see also individual bishops
St Asaph, diocese of (M.4) 180, 325
boundaries of 183
dean of 441, 451
diocesan organisation in 185
Master David archdeacon of 263
parishes in 186–7
portionary churches in 177
St Beuno 173, 175, 205
St Cadfan 203
St Cadog 116
life of 11, 74, 100, 173, 178
St Clears (M.5): castle of 224
lordship of 219, 272
St Curig, staff of 205
St Cynog 206
St David (Dewi Sant) 17, 19, 116, 173, 175–6, 182, 184, 203, 221
biography of, by Rhigyfarch 11, 100, 173, 184, 205
body of 184
handbell of 266
St Davids (Pebidiog) 10, 25, 32–3, 146, 161, 178, 206, 221
canons of 375
cathedral of 105, 145, 182, 184, 195, 414
cathedral organization 185
cathedral stalls at 177
episcopal palace of 414
hospital at 376
mint at 33 n., 162
St Davids, bishop of 32, 40, 88, 174, 242, 257; see also individual bishops
St Davids, bishopric of (M.4) 173, 450
commutation of renders in 163
definition of boundaries of 182
diocesan organization in 185
estates of 86, 117, 180
metropolitan pretensions of 190–1
parishes in 186–7
St Dogmaels see Llandudoch
St Dyfrig, Dubricius 182, 184
bones of 184, 206
St Euddogwy 182
life of 183
St Evroul, abbey of 87
St Georges (Savoy) 338
Master James of 358, 360
St Harmon (Gwrtheyrnion), church of 205
St Padarn 13, 184, 203, 205
staff of 206
St Quintin, family of 88
St Teilo 173, 175, 182, 184, 206
bell of 206
St Tysilio 175–6, 203, 207, 230
Sais, Sir Gregory 399
Salisbury, John of 143
Salisbury, Roger bishop of 41
Saumur, abbey of St Florent near 181
Say, family of 85, 101
Helias de 51
Picot de 30, 102
Scotland 53, 291, 295–6, 311, 356, 387, 434–5, 437–8
comparison with native Wales 269–70
in Glyn Dŵr revolt 444, 446, 449, 454
Scrope, Stephen 454
Seisyll ap Dyfnwal 100
Senghennydd (Glamorgan M.5), commote of 96, 322
native rulers of 222, 273, 282, 321–2, 388
Severn, river 3, 6, 8–9, 26, 28, 30, 90, 92, 140, 144, 231, 274
Shaldeford, Henry (d. 1345) 411, 416, 437, 441
Shrewsbury 27–8, 30, 103, 169, 229, 233, 242, 293, 299, 382
battle of (1403) 444
mint at 162
St Peter's abbey 180
Shrewsbury, earls of see Montgomery
Shropshire 6–7, 30, 40–1
sheriff of 30
Siambr Wen (Tegeingl) 151
Simon, archdeacon of Clynnog (d. 1152) 76, 185
Sion Cent 13
Siward, Richard 282, 287
Skenfrith (Monmouth), castle of 281, 299
Skidmore, Philip 452
Slebech (Daugleddau), house of Hospitallers at 221
Snowdon (Y Wyddfa), Snowdonia (Eryri) 140–1, 236, 238
Somery, family of 85
Roger de 159
Song of Roland, Welsh translation of 105
Spridlington, William, bishop of St Asaph (1377–82) 398
Springhose, Roger 351
Stafford, family of 395
Stalworthman, family of 422
Statute of Wales (1284) 131, 133, 356, 364–5, 368–70
Stephen, king of England (1135–54) 46, 94
Stephen the Painter 358
Strata Florida, Ystrad Fflur (Ceredigion M.4), abbey of: 197, 200–1, 221, 261, 273, 414, 451
assembly at (1238) 245, 247, 249
lay brothers of 199
literary work at 200–1, 418
wool production in 170
Strata Marcella, Ystrad Marchell (Powys M.7), abbey of 197, 235, 441
Strigoil see Chepstow
Sturmy, Geoffrey 153, 188
(p.528) Sulien, bishop of St Davids (1073–8, 1080–5) 10, 176–8, 193
Sulien (d. 1146) ap Rhigyfarch 76, 178, 203
Swansea, Abertawe (Gower M.3) 143, 161, 170, 218, 242, 272
castle of 90, 243, 266, 414
charter of 413
hospital of St David at 414
mint at 47
Sychdyn (Tegeingl) 8
Talacharn, commote of (M.10) 85, 219, 272, 472
Flemings in 99, 159; see also Laugharne
Talgarth (Arwystli M.7) 256, 378
Talgarth (M.2) 148
cantref/lordship of 142
church of 187
Talybolion (Anglesey) 18
Tal-y-fan (Glamorgan) 88
Talyllychau, Talley (Cantref Mawr M.4), abbey of 195, 221, 375
Tany, Luke 351–3
Tegeingl, Englefield, cantref of (M.8) 12, 31, 46, 51, 301, 303, 337, 340, 364, 409, 428
annexation by Gwynedd 49, 68, 74, 93
native dynasty of 44, 217
population and settlement 147
re-annexed by king 51
Welshmen of 434
Teifi, river (M.1) 46, 140, 144
Tenby (Pembroke M.3) 37, 50, 219, 454
borough of 165–6, 170, 427
castle of 45, 47, 277
church of 413
town walls of 413
David Perrott of 452
Tern, river 50
Tewkesbury 300
abbey of 180, 187
Thelwall, family of 422
Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1161) 127
Thomas ap Madog 280
Three Castles (Monmouth) 277, 299, 303; see also Grosmont, Skenfrith, Whitecastle
Tibetot, Robert 349–50, 381
justiciar of west Wales (1281–98) 364, 366, 380, 382
Tidenham (Glos.) 155
Tintern (Gwent M.4), abbey of 153, 19–7, 414
flocks of 157, 170
Tomen y Faerdref (Iâl) 62
Tomen y Rhodwydd (Iâl M.8) 48–9
Tony, Tosny, family of 37
Ralph de 29, 82
Ralph de (d. 1295) 333
Roger (d. 1264) 313
Trahaearn (d. 1081) ap Caradog 24, 33, 68, 71
Trahaearn Fychan (d. 1197) 101, 222 n., 224
Trallwng Llywelyn see Welshpool
Trawsfynydd (Ardudwy) 142
tref (E. vill) 23, 129–30
Trefilan (Ceredigion) 256
Trefor, John, bishop of St Asaph (1395–1410) 439, 445, 450–1
Trefriw (Nantconwy) 165
Tregaron (Ceredigion) 142
Tregrug (Usk), castle of 412
Trelywarch (Anglesey) 69
Tresgawen (Anglesey) 148
Tretower (Blaenllyfni M.3): castle of 86, 912, 281
court of 412
Trewalchmai (Anglesey) 69
Tristan, legend of 122
Tryleg (Gwent), forest of 141
Tudur (d. 1278) ab Ednyfed Fychan 263
Tudur ab Ithel Fychan 428
Tudur ap Goronwy, sons of 457
Turberville, family of 88, 196
Tŷ Draw, Llanarmon (Chirk) 415
Tywi, river (M.1) 10, 37, 140
Tywyn (Merionydd M.4) 165
church of 174, 176, 188, 205
Uchdryd ab Edwin 67, 75
Uchelolau, Highlight (Glamorgan), deserted village of 151, 188
Uchtryd, bishop of Llandaff (1140–8) 176
Urban, bishop of Llandaff (1107–34) 88, 179–80, 192, 206
struggle with Bishop Bernard of St Davids 182–4
Usk: Adam of 439, 445
borough of 17, 444
castle of 277, 281, 360
Usk, lordship of (M.10) 84, 85, 277, 289, 442, 467
demesne farming in 399
English and Welsh in 100, 159–60
reclamation of land in 153
Welsh community of 96
Usk, Wysg, river (M.1) 9, 29, 37, 92, 140, 272
Valence, family of 395
William (d. 1296) 316, 377
Vale Royal (Cheshire), abbey of 356
Vale Crucis, Llyn Egwestl (Iâl M.7), abbey of 197, 200–1, 235, 414
monumental effigies at 200
Venables, Gilbert de 31
Verdun, family of 280
Theobald 378
Vieuxpont, Robert 296
Vikings 25
raids on Wales 10, 25, 32, 157
Waldeboef, family of 95, 273, 422
Wales, a collection of regions 8–15
agriculture in 152–7
as a source of troops 398–9
borders and extent of 3–7, 16
development of trade, market and towns in 162–71, 413
distinction between English and Welsh in post-Conquest society 419–21
financial exploitation in fourteenth century 399, 402–3
fragmented character in fourteenth century 391–4
geographical character of 139–44
(p.529) geographical images of 139
growing assimilation of Welsh and English 421–5
growing sense of patriotism in mid-thirteenth century 316–17
housing in 151–2
its rôle in English politics in the fourteenth century 403–8
judicial income from 401–2
local divisions of 20–3
political fragmentation of 14–15
population of 146–8
settlement pattern in 149–51
taxation in 382, 392, 402
terms for 4
trade in pre-Norman period 161
travel in 143–6
unity of 15–20
use of written word in 111–12
weather of 142–3
westward orientation of 10–11
Wales, March of, alien colonization in 97–100, 158–60, 370–1
castle-building in 89–92, 280–1, 360
conquest of 36–40, 87–93, 277–80
consolidation of seignorial authority 281–2
Englishries and Welshries in 283–4, 419–25
financial exploitation by lords 399–403, 439
law of 285
leading families in fourteenth century 394–7
liberties of 285–8
nature and extent of 7, 54–5, 272–6, 284, 287–8, 391–4
nature of governance in 282–3, 397–8
nature of lordship in 31–2, 96–7, 398–403
policy of Edward I towards 376–9
relations between English and Welsh in 100–7
relationships between lordships in 285–6 392–4
rôle in events of 1263–7: 312–3
rôle of individual families in development of 83–7, 276–9
royal interest and policy in 40–2, 53–4, 93–4, 275–6, 305–6
subinfeudation in 39–40, 94–5
Wales, Principality of (post-Conquest): administrative organization of 363–6
collapse of revenue in 426–7
English and Welsh law in 367–70
financial pressure in 399–403, 439
justiciarship of 364–6, 406
status of 391–2
tensions within 379–82, 410–11, 431–4
Wallensis (Le Waleys), Thomas bishop of St Davids 1248–55: 193–4
Wallia, 4, 213
pura Wallia, 213, 272
marchia Wallie, 213, 272
Walter, Hubert 292
Warenne, family of 395
John, earl of Surrey (d. 1304) 363
John, earl of Surrey (d. 1347) 399, 404, 406
Warin the Bald 30, 83
Welsh: adopt the name Cymry 19
communal grievances of 379–80, 387, 401, 410–11, 431–4
external images of 15, 113, 437
historical mythology of 78–80, 435–7, 449
national aspirations of 78–80, 434–7
relations with English settlers in Wales 101–7, 385–6, 419–25, 433–4
sense of common identity of 15–20, 316–17, 352
Welsh Church, changing patterns of religious devotion in 207–9
character of in the eleventh century 172–9
church building 184, 187–8
cult of saints in 205–6
decline of native clasau in 194–6
definition of dioceses 182–3
definition of parishes in 129, 186–7
development of monasticism in 196–201
diocesan organisation in 184–6
ecclesiastical traditions in 183–4
growing tensions within in the fourteenth century 439–41
impact of Edwardian Conquest on 373–6
impact of Normans on 39–40, 179–82
impact on lay society 76–7
introduction of Benedictine monasticism into 40, 181, 196
mendicant orders in 201–2
nature of popular devotion in 202–9
papal authority in 191–4
relationship with native rulers 325–6
subjection to Canterbury 179–80, 188–91
Welsh language: French borrowings in 104
literary manuscripts in 112–13
literary unity of 17
pride in 17, 317
religious literature in 207
Welsh law: attitude towards kingship 252–3
co-aration in 130, 150, 154–5
commissions of inquiry into (1278–81) 18, 135, 158, 344, 346
concepts of status in 116
definition of royal descent in 57–8
definition of Welshman in 16
developments in 134–5, 158, 164, 422
honourable arts in 119
judges and judgements in 132–4
kin-responsibility in 124–6
land law in 125–6, 132
manuscripts of, lawbooks 18, 65, 113, 133–4, 194, 221, 418, 422
marriage in 127–8
nature of 18, 113, 133–4
rôle in political struggles of 1277–82: 345–6, 348
rôle of religion in 204
status in post-Conquest Wales 367–9, 422–4, 432–3
suretyship in 131
Welsh literature: after the Edwardian Conquest 379
broad cultural unity of 17–18
ideological background of 77–80
impact of Anglo-Norman culture on 104–5
nature of poetry and poetic order in 63–4
oral character of its tradition 112
revival and transformation in the fourteenth century 417–19
rôle of mythology in 16, 78–80, 435–6
Welsh principalities: aristocracy in 68–70
comparison with kingdom of Scotland 270–1
consolidation of princely authority in 259–61
development of administration in 261–4
financial resources of 64–5, 256–9
hegemony fa twelfth century 74–5
law and justice in 65, 260–1
military resources of 66–7, 254–6
nature of early kingdoms 59–62
(p.530) political instability of 72–3
position of ruler in 57, 252–3
prince's court in 62–64, 253–4
weaknesses in 266–7; see also Deheubarth; Gwynedd; Powys
Welsh society: attitude to marriage in 127–9
changes within after the Black Death 425–30
communal activities in 130–1
commutation of renders in 163–4
decline of serfdom in 427–8
definition of freedom in 115, 117–18
diet and dress in 152–4
economic changes within 157–71
English boroughs and burgesses in 371–3, 413, 421–2, 433–4, 441
family in 127
free and unfree in 117–21
growing use of money in 162–4
honour in 116–17
kinship in 122–7
land inheritance in 125–7
law and justice in 131–5
military service and habits in 66, 71, 146, 254–5
partibility in 120–1
redistribution of territorial wealth in 428–9
rôle of native squirearchy in 415–17, 451–2
social and economic inequalities in 136
status and lineage in 115–29
ties of dependence in 135–7
Welshpool, Trallwng Llywelyn (Powys M.7) 6, 165, 259, 321
borough of 235, 459 n.
castle of 67, 230–1, 233, 292
Wentwood (Gwent) 141
Westbury (Glos.) 25
Wethenoc of Monmouth 82–3
Wettenhall, Adam 366
Whitchurch (Salop) 169, 350
Whitecastle (Monmouth) 148, 255, 281, 299
survey of (1386) 428
Whitford (Tegeingl) 8, 428
Whitland, Hendy-Gwyn (Cantref Gwarthaf M.5) 221
abbey of 196–7, 221, 451
daughter-houses of 199
Whittington (Salop) 50, 281, 314–5
Wigmore (M.3, M.10) 279, 313, 395
borough of 29
castle of 29
chronicle of abbey of 47, 82
lordship of 276, 378
Turstin of 82
Wilfrid, bishop of St Davids (1085–1115) 179
William I, king of England (1066–87) 27–8, 87, 93
coins of 29 n.
visit to St Davids 32–3
William II, king of England (1087–1100) 93
chaplain of 179
policy in Wales 34–5
William Gwyn 451
William Gwyn ap Rhys Llwyd 457
Winchcombe, Tideman of bishop of Llandaff (1393–5) 439
Winchester 169
Wiston (Daugleddau M.3) 46–7, 98, 148, 219
castle of 37, 45
lordship of 272
Woodstock (Oxon.) 299
submission of Welsh princes at (1163) 52
treaty of (1247) 303, 335
Worcester 293, 299, 313, 341, 446
earl of see Percy, Thomas
treaty of (1218) 242–3, 297
Wye, Gwy, river 3, 9, 29, 92, 141, 272
Wynn, Sir John 456
Wyre, forest of 404
Yonge, Young; Gruffudd, chancellor of Owain Glyn Dŵr and bishop of Bangor (1407) 450–1
Morgan 434
Ynys Lannog, Ynys Seiriol (Anglesey M.4) see Priestholm
Ystlwyf, commote of (M.5) 218, 226, 277
Ystrad Meurig (Ceredigion M.5), castle of 67, 88, 255
Ystrad Tywi (M.2) 20–1, 34, 62, 117, 218
men of 62
Ystrad Yw, commote of 86, 183
Ystrwyth, Master 264
Ystumgwern (Ardudwy), Llywelyn's hall at 254, 355
Zouche, Alan la 307