Upper gastrointestinal tumours
This chapter discusses the cancers of the upper gastrointestinal region. The most common upper gastrointestinal cancers are the cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, and pancreas. All these types of cancer are strongly associated with smoking. Oesophageal cancer may also be related to high alcohol intake, while cancer of the stomach may also be associated to ingested carcinogens and chronic mucosal conditions, which are prevalent in depressed societies. Upper gastrointestinal tumours infiltrate locally and spread via lymphatic drainage to regional lymph nodes within the mediastinum from the oesophagus and within the abdomen from the other sites. Prognosis of all these malignancies is generally poor, with only a ten per cent of long-term survival, the maximum of which is five years' survival.
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