Conclusion: 1830: The Take-Off
This chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the advent of modern capitalism in France during the period from 1770 to 1840. It suggests that the development of the railway effectively ended the traditional French rural civilization and threatened protoindustrial communities. It also highlights the significant contributions of Pierre-François Tubeuf in bringing the inhabitants of Bas-Languedoc into the age of coal and iron. This chapter also analyses the interrelationship between economic, political, social, and cultural changes associated with the shift of French civilization from wood and charcoal to iron and coal.
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