The MarÉchal de Castries: Aristocrats and Protoindustrializers
This chapter examines French businessman Pierre-François Tubeuf's rivalry and competition with the Maréchal de Castries. When the Maréchal de Castries entered proto-industrialized society it was experiencing a major recession, which heavily affected the coal mining business of Tubeuf. In the early 1780s, Tubeuf's fortune started to wane, particularly in the Ales region. This chapter analyses the personal enmity between Tubeuf and Castries along with the socio-economic and political issues surrounding the industrial sector.
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