Works for Tape
The continuing work of the established studios provides a useful starting point for a general perspective of the more significant electronic works to be produced during the 1960s and 1970s. Major centers such as Cologne, Paris, Milan, and Columbia/Princeton remained primarily concerned with the production of tape works. Japan might seem an unlikely country to have made a significant contribution to the development of electronic music by the mid-1960s. The initiative came from the establishment of an avant-garde in Japanese composition soon after the Second World War, inspired at least in part by the rapid development of communications with the Western world. The main impetus to developments in Canada stemmed from the founding of a studio at the University of Toronto in 1959, initially under the directorship of Arnold Walter.
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